Morningness and Eveningness as a Single Construct - 1410 Words | Assessment Example (2023)

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Circadian Rhythms
  3. Morningness
  4. Eveningness
  5. Single Construct
  6. Advantages and Disadvantages
  7. Conclusion
  8. References
We will write a custom Assessment on Morningness and Eveningness as a Single Construct specifically for you for only $11.00 $9.35/page 807 certified writers online Learn More


The functioning of the human body depends on numerous factors because of its complexity. It can be represented as a sophisticated system impacted by various aspects and depending on their change. An enhanced understanding of how these factors might promote specific changes in the body’s work and influence a person is vital for the increased quality of life and higher productivity levels. Thus, the circadian rhythm is one of the fundamental concepts regulating the life of a person. The sleep-wake cycle and its repetitions establish the basis for human activities and people’s ability to achieve planned goals. It also means that the concepts of morningness and eveningness acquire the top priority as they describe specific behavioral patterns of an individual, peculiarities of his/her biological and psychological processes, and activity peaks. For this reason, numerous attempts are made to analyze these phenomena and acquire an enhanced vision. There is also a tendency to consider morningness and eveningness as a single construct, which becomes an issue for disputes.

Circadian Rhythms

A person’s circadian rhythm, or so-called biological clock, has always been an issue for discussion and investigation. Researchers have always been trying to determine the correlation between physical time and activity peaks peculiar to various individuals (Harvey et al., 2014). It is also linked to the sleep-wake cycle originating within an organism and depending on various factors influencing individuals’ preferences linked to rest and activity periods. The differences in these patterns result in the emergence of early birds and night owls, or people who are most active at night or during day hours. The given cycles are usually associated with the body temperature peaks and other changes in the physiological processes (Miyazaki et al., 2018). At the same time, a better understanding of the cycle requires in-depth research and work with representatives of these two cohorts. That is why the concepts of morningness and eveningness acquire the top priority.


As stated previously, some individuals are more active during the daytime or morning periods. For this reason, the concept of morningness is used to describe this cohort. It refers to individuals who have preferences for morning or daytime activities (Roy et al., 2021). They do most of their tasks during the early hours, which is also linked to the changes in their body temperatures (Roy et al., 2021). The assessment of diurnal preferences or timing of sleep is usually performed using specific questionnaires promoting a better vision of how individuals spend their days and the peculiarities of their circadian cycles (Zielińska et al., 2021). Thus, there is also research showing the correlation between morningness and specific preferences, features, and abilities of a person (Zielińska et al., 2021). For instance, morning-type individuals are less pessimistic, have lower stress or depression levels, and demonstrate better school performance (Zielińska et al., 2021). It means that the biological clock might influence various activities and play an essential role in people’s lives and careers.


Eveningness is another concept introduced to describe specific preferences regarding sleep-wake patterns. In general, the term can be defined as the individual’s preference for being most active and alert during late hours or in the evening (Roy et al., 2021). It is also linked to biological rhythms and body temperature. Investigations show that people with this characteristic have a tendency toward the growth of their temperature during the second half of the day and show more interest in various activities (Ágoston et al., 2019). This pattern of sleep-wake distribution also influences personal features, reactions, and preferences. For instance, the evening type individuals more often have sleep and mood problems, irregular wake habits, and are more addicted to caffeine (Ágoston et al., 2019). It means that the given peculiarity of the circadian cycle becomes an essential step towards a better understanding of individuals, their psychology, and behaviors.

Thus, the distribution of time for activity and rest regarding the period forms the circadian preference of an individual and his/her specific reactions. The existing body of evidence shows that morning and evening types have specific preferences and personality types. The first category is usually more open, while the second one prefers loneliness and isolation (Ágoston et al., 2019). Moreover, there are other factors linked to the specific characteristics of these issues. In such a way, the enhanced understanding of morningness and eveningness is necessary for various fields, including psychology, biology, and medicine. That is why there are also numerous debates about the topic and how it should be treated.

Single Construct

From the definitions, it is also possible to understand that morningness and eveningness can be viewed as two aspects of a sleep-wake cycle. For this reason, there is a tendency toward seeing these issues as a single construct that is critical for understanding behavioral patterns, the psychology of individuals, and changes in their biological rhythms (Miyazaki et al., 2018). The existing questionnaires focus on researching the morningness-eveningness dyad by collecting information about sleep and activity patterns and processing it to acquire a better understanding of how a person behaves (Miyazaki et al., 2018). In such a way, by merging these two concepts, researchers start to view them as a single entity and acquire new opportunities to investigate their impacts. At the same time, there are also some disadvantages linked to the given perspective on the two concepts that should also be considered to realize possible barriers for further investigation and research.

Advantages and Disadvantages

As stated previously, there are some advantages linked to considering morningness and eveningness a single construct. First of all, it provides researchers an opportunity to conduct research in the given field, focusing on two aspects simultaneously. For instance, Lipnevich et al. (2017) delve into the correlation between the given dyad and the Big Five factors of personality. In the study, they research both characteristics and how they impact such features as openness, extravert, or introvert patterns (Lipnevich et al., 2017). Moreover, viewing morningness and eveningness as a single construct helps to develop unified tools necessary for investigating the sleep-wake cycle and discussing results. In such a way, the given decision can be viewed as a step promoting in-depth research in the given field and offering new chances for investigators.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More

At the same time, there are also some important disadvantages of considering these two issues as a single construct. For instance, Lipnevich et al. (2017) conclude that morningness and eveningness have different influences on the factors of personality. The first one is linked to extrovert behavioral patterns, while the second one correlates with introvert preferences (Lipnevich et al., 2017). It proves that these circadian preferences influence individuals differently and promote the emergence and development of various responses. For this reason, it is vital to consider and investigate both these aspects separately instead of focusing on a single construct. Otherwise, the scope of research will be too broad, and researchers will face numerous challenges when conducting the study. The attempt to work with the broader audience and investigate numerous factors at the same time might deteriorate outcomes and reduce their credibility. For this reason, it is necessary to consider this aspect when speaking about merging the ideas of morningness and eveningness into a single construct.


In such a way, the discussed concepts are essential for a better understanding of sleep-wake patterns and their influence on individuals’ behaviors, psychology, and major personality traits. The research by Lipnevich et al. (2017) shows that morningness and eveningness impact academic activity, conscientiousness, and personality traits. At the same time, it is vital to continue investigation of the given field to ensure new data demonstrating how circadian preference and specific chronotype influence individuals and their functioning in different situations. However, I believe that better results can be attained if these two aspects are viewed as different constructs that should be researched separately.

My assumption rests on several factors linked to the circadian cycle and its investigation. First of all, the analyzed sources show that morningness and eveningness are broad concepts affecting individuals in their own ways. Moreover, the scope of differences is significant, and much effort is needed to understand what traits and characteristics emerge under the influence of these factors. For this reason, it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on these aspects separately. Second, although creating a single construct offers opportunities for using unified research tools, the results might be too broad and require additional clarification. For this reason, I believe it is necessary to view morningness and eveningness as two different constructs.


Ágoston, C., Urbán, R., Rigó, A., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2019). Morningness-eveningness and caffeine consumption: A largescale path-analysis study. Chronobiology International, 36(9), 1301–1309.

Harvey, C. J., Gehrman, P., & Espie, C. A. (2014). Who is predisposed to insomnia: a review of familial aggregation, stress-reactivity, personality and coping style. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 18(3), 237–247.

Lipnevich, A. A., Credè, M., Hahn, E., Spinath, F. M., Roberts, R. D., & Preckel, F. (2017). How distinctive are morningness and eveningness from the Big Five factors of personality? A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112(3), 491–509.

Miyazaki, R., Ando, H., Hamasaki, T., Higuchi, Y., Oshita, K., Tashiro, T., & Sakane, N. (2018). Development and initial validation of the Morningness-Eveningness Exercise Preference Questionnaire (MEEPQ) in Japanese university students. PloS One, 13(7), e0200870.

We will write a custom Assessment on Morningness and Eveningness as a Single Construct specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

Roy, C., Monsivais, D., Bhattacharya, K., Dunbar, R., & Kaski, K. (2021). Morningness-eveningness assessment from mobile phone communication analysis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 14606.

Zielińska, A., Stolarski, M., & Jankowski, K. S. (2021). Moral foundations in chronotypes: morningness predicts conservative morality. Chronobiology International, 38(8), 1143–1150.


How to interpret Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire? ›


Scores can range from 16-86. Scores of 41 and below indicate "evening types." Scores of 59 and above indicate "morning types." Scores between 42-58 indicate "intermediate types." Occasionally a person has trouble with the questionnaire.

What is the theory of morningness and eveningness? ›

Morningness-eveningness, the degree to which people prefer organizing their activity and sleep patterns toward the morning or evening, is related to circadian phase and is associated with mood, with relatively greater psychological distress among evening types.

Can the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire be used to measure circadian phase? ›

The Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ; Horne and Östberg, 1976) measures an individual's chronotype and circadian phase shift.

Which aspects of morningness-eveningness change with age? ›

As age increases, the amount of time spent asleep decreases. This loss of sleep occurs predomi- nantly during the morning hours and leads to earlier morning wake times and an increased inability to sleep late with increased age.

What is the children's Morningness-Eveningness Preference Scale? ›

Children's Morningness-Eveningness Preference Scale (CMEP).

The CMEP is a 10-item self-report measure of circadian preference. It assesses timing preference for certain activities. Scores range from 10 (extreme evening preference) to 42 (extreme morning preference) (Carskadon et al., 1993).

What is the composite scale of Morningness-Eveningness? ›

Cutoffs for the scale were chosen using the upper and lower percentiles of the scale: A score of 22 or below indicates an evening type, a score above 44 indicates a morn- ing type, and scores in between receive a classifi- cation of intermediate.

What is the difference between Morningness and eveningness? ›

Morningness-eveningness refers to the individual differences in diurnal preferences, sleep-wake pattern for activity, and alertness in the morning and evening (Susman et al., 2007).

What is Morningness and eveningness Questionnaire in circadian rhythm? ›

The morningness–eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) is a self-assessment questionnaire developed by researchers James A. Horne and Olov Östberg in 1976. Its main purpose is to measure whether a person's circadian rhythm (biological clock) produces peak alertness in the morning, in the evening, or in between.

What is the meaning of morningness? ›

Noun. morningness (uncountable) The characteristic of being most active and alert during the morning; being a morning person.

What is the morning type evening type? ›

The circadian types are morning-type, evening-type, and intermediate type. Morning-types go to sleep early and wake up early, while evening-types are active during the night and cannot get up early (15,16).

Does eveningness predict negative affect following sleep restriction? ›

Subsequent analyses showed that chronotype predicted affective response to sleep restriction, such that eveningness predicted a medium, significant increase in negative affect following sleep restriction, controlling for depression—however, there was no association between chronotype and change in positive affect in ...

What might be the most important way to measure sleep or circadian rhythms and why? ›

The best method of measuring the circadian rhythm includes monitoring the core body temperature and salivary/plasma melatonin levels. A rating scale, morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), can also be utilized to assess the circadian pattern.

What is the difference between morning and evening chronotype? ›

Chronotype refers to individual differences in sleep timing and in preferences for a given time of day (Adan et al., 2012). Morning types prefer to get up and go to bed early, while evening types get up and go to bed later (Adan et al., 2012).

Is eveningness a risk for behavioral problems in late adolescence? ›

Circadian preference toward eveningness has been associated with increased risk for mental health problems both in early adolescence and in adulthood. However, in late adolescence, when circadian rhythm naturally shifts to later, its significance for mental health is not clear.

What changes with age and time? ›

Your bones, joints and muscles

With age, bones tend to shrink in size and density, weakening them and making them more susceptible to fracture. You might even become a bit shorter. Muscles generally lose strength, endurance and flexibility — factors that can affect your coordination, stability and balance.

Is morningness associated with better gradings and higher attention in class? ›

Morning-types showed higher Learning and Performance Goals than Evening-types, and these goals were positively related to self-reported academic performance. Achievement goals were more associated to self-reported grades in Evening-types than in Neither- and Morning-types.

How to score childrens sleep habits questionnaire? ›

Each scored question is rated on a 3-point scale as occurring “usually” (i.e., 5–7 times within the past week), “sometimes” (i.e., 2–4 times within the past week), or “rarely” (i.e., never or 1 time within the past week).

What is the child ChronoType questionnaire? ›

The Children's ChronoType Questionnaire (CCTQ)

Parents respond to a number of open-ended questions about sleep/wake parameters for both scheduled and free days (bedtime, time of lights-off, sleep latency in min, wake-up time, get-up time, time fully alert).

What is composite measure examples? ›

A composite measure is a combination of two or more individual measures in a single measure that results in a single score. Examples of composite measures from other fields include those related to intelligence and personality tests and various economic indexes.

How do you calculate composite scale? ›

The composite score is usually created by adding all of the ratings together (i.e., the sum) or by taking the average (mean) of the ratings.

What is composite rating scale? ›

Theoretically, composite rating scales represent the construct broken down into several items and subscales or domains, intended to measure, for example, the presence, frequency, intensity or duration of symptoms.

What is the personality of an evening person? ›

On the other hand, evening people tend to be more extravagant, temperamental, impulsive and novelty- seeking, "with a higher tendency to explore the unknown." They are more likely to suffer from insomnia and ADHD.

What are the characteristics of morning person? ›

"Morning people are those who rise from sleep fairly easily and are most productive and/or active in the mornings," says Dr. Ayish "If you're a morning person, your brain is most alert in the morning, and you're generally very good at harnessing this energy and focus to get tasks, work and chores done."

What chronotype is a morning person? ›

Lion: The lion chronotype stands in for the early bird. These individuals wake up early and are most productive in the morning, but may have more trouble following a social schedule in the evenings.

What is one example of circadian rhythm psychology? ›

One example of a light-related circadian rhythm is sleeping at night and being awake during the day. The Average Teen Circadian Cycle image shows the circadian rhythm cycle of a typical teen.

What is the difference between circadian and circannual biorhythms? ›

Circadian rhythms exhibit a period of about 24 h whereas circannual (seasonal) rhythms cycle over the course of a year. Both types of rhythms are coordinated by the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).

What is the correct spelling of the 24-hour rhythm that regulates waking and sleeping patterns ________? ›

Your internal clock, called a circadian clock, cycles about every 24 hours. These repeating 24-hour cycles are called the circadian rhythm.

What is the meaning of morning hours? ›

(mɔːʳnɪŋ ) variable noun. The morning is the part of each day between the time that people usually wake up and 12 o'clock noon or lunchtime.

What does Zzzzz mean in English? ›

Zzz is an onomatopoeic representation of snoring. Zzz is commonly used in comic books to indicate that someone is sleeping. It has also become a part of the idiom catch some Zs, which means to sleep.

What does manana mean in time? ›

: an indefinite time in the future.

What is the biggest difference between morning and evening-types? ›

Morning-type and evening-type individuals differ in the phase position of their endogenous circadian oscillator.

Are morning types consistently more conscientious than evening-types? ›

For instance, morning-types are more conscientious and agreeable (e.g. Randler, 2008a), have higher scores in persistence and self-directedness (Adan et al., 2010), are more satisfied with their lives comparing to evening-types (Randler, 2008b), and have higher academic scores (Randler & Frech, 2006).

What are evening-types? ›

Evening-types can be described as imaginative and willing to entertain unconventional ideas, characteristics of the openness to experience dimension of personality, which involves receptivity to and interest in new experiences (Costa & McCrae, 1992).

What factors most negatively and positively affect your sleep? ›

Sleep is affected by both internal and external factors. The internal factors that affect sleep quality include physical pain, stress, mental health issues, snoring, and sleep disorders. The external factors include light, jet lag, medications, sleep environment, sleep schedule, caffeine and alcohol, and certain foods.

Does less sleep make you more alert? ›

Without enough rest, we build up a sleep debt which can negatively affect bodily functions such as the immune system. Despite this, after a poor night's sleep, it isn't unusual to feel energized throughout the day. In fact, our reactions can become quicker and more exaggerated if we have not had enough sleep.

Does lack of sleep have a negative effect on your appearance? ›

Results show that the faces of sleep-deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes and darker circles under the eyes. Sleep deprivation also was associated with paler skin, more wrinkles or fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth.

What are three factors that influence your sleep-wake need? ›

  • Sleep in the Real World. The internal mechanisms that regulate our almost ceaseless cycles of sleep and wakefulness make up a remarkable system. ...
  • Light's Effect. ...
  • Jet Lag and Shift Work. ...
  • Pain, Anxiety, and Other Medical Conditions. ...
  • Medications and Other Substances. ...
  • The Sleep Environment.
Dec 18, 2007

Why do I have difficulty waking up in the morning? ›

Difficulty waking up in the morning causes

These include: parasomnias, such as sleepwalking, sleep talking, and night terrors. sleep apnea, which causes periods of stopped breathing during sleep. sleep deficiency, which can involve not getting good quality sleep, or sleep deprivation, which is not getting enough sleep.

Why is it important to get enough quality sleep each night? ›

Good sleep improves your brain performance, mood, and health. Not getting enough quality sleep regularly raises the risk of many diseases and disorders. These range from heart disease and stroke to obesity and dementia.

How do you tell if it's morning or evening? ›

  1. Parts of the Day.
  2. Morning 5 am to 12 pm (noon)
  3. Afternoon 12 pm to 5 pm.
  4. Evening 5 pm to 9 pm.
  5. Night 9 pm to 4 am.

Does morning or evening chronotype affect the risk of obesity? ›

Logistic regression models showed that, compared to the morning chronotype, individuals with evening chronotype had a significantly increased odds of obesity (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.14–2.50) (Table 2).

Why are mornings better than nights? ›

Morning people tend to be less stressed because they can get more things done during the day. It also helps eliminate the hectic rush of getting ready for work or school in the morning. Being up earlier, means you can take your time and not worry about being late. It can also make your commute smoother.

Which aspects of morningness eveningness change with age? ›

As age increases, the amount of time spent asleep decreases. This loss of sleep occurs predomi- nantly during the morning hours and leads to earlier morning wake times and an increased inability to sleep late with increased age.

Why is eveningness a particular problem during adolescence? ›

Why is eveningness a particular problem during adolescence? Eveningness are at risk for antisocial behavior because they are awake when adults are asleep. Society schedules for adults not for teenagers, which makes adolescents increasingly sleep deprived each year in high school.

What are 3 changes that might occur during the aging process? ›

With age, your skin thins and becomes less elastic and more fragile, and fatty tissue just below the skin decreases. You might notice that you bruise more easily. Decreased production of natural oils might make your skin drier. Wrinkles, age spots and small growths called skin tags are more common.

What are the three types of aging? ›

In broader terms, aging can be broken down into three distinct and often related categories: biological aging, psychological aging, and social aging.

How do you measure circadian preference? ›

Circadian preference is often determined by self-assessment questionnaires that manly focus on a one-dimensional presentation of the trait, like for example the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) by Horne and Östberg (1976.

How is ChronoType measured? ›

Chronotype refers to individuals' preferences for timing of sleep and wakefulness. It can be quantified by measuring the midpoint time between the start and end of sleep during free days.

What is a morningness ChronoType? ›

Morningness-eveningness or chronotype is an individual difference trait1. This trait refers to the sleep-wake behaviour (preferred bed times and wake times), as well as to times preferred for peak cognitive and physical performance and to psychological aspects, such as affect (e.g., the feeling after awakening).

How do you measure attention in class? ›

Traditionally, students' attention has been assessed using self-report and classroom observations. Early studies using note-taking and classroom observations to assess students' attention (e.g., Johnstone and Percival, 1976) seemed to suggest that students' attention declines 10–15 minutes into a lecture.

Which is the highest quality in a teacher's personality? ›

The Top 14 Qualities that Make a Good Teacher
  1. Adaptability. Adaptability is a must for teachers, who need to continuously evaluate what's working for their students — and even more importantly, what isn't working. ...
  2. Empathy. ...
  3. Patience. ...
  4. Engagement. ...
  5. Active Listening. ...
  6. Lifelong Learning. ...
  7. Free of Bias. ...
  8. Respectful Attitude.

What is the most important way to measure sleep or circadian rhythms? ›

The best method of measuring the circadian rhythm includes monitoring the core body temperature and salivary/plasma melatonin levels. A rating scale, morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), can also be utilized to assess the circadian pattern.

What does a good circadian rhythm look like? ›

Adults should have a pretty consistent circadian rhythm if they practice healthy habits. Their bedtimes and wake times should remain stable if they follow a fairly regular schedule and aim for 7 to 9 hours of sleep every night. Adults likely get sleepy well before midnight, as melatonin releases into their bodies.

What is an example of a circadian rhythm? ›

There are many examples of circadian rhythms, such as the sleep-wake cycle, the body-temperature cycle, and the cycles in which a number of hormones are secreted. Infradian rhythms have a period of more than 24 hours. The menstrual cycle in women and the hibernation cycle in bears are two good examples.

What is the rarest sleep chronotype? ›

The dolphin chronotype is the rarest animal type, as dolphins comprise only 10 per cent of the population. Dolphin chronotypes aren't the best at hitting the hay, as they are primarily light sleepers and are easily disturbed by noise, movement and temperature changes, often waking up in the middle of the night.

What are the 4 sleep chronotypes? ›

There are four sleep chronotypes: bear, lion, wolf, and dolphin. Bears are the most common, and dolphins are rare. Your chronotype is likely to shift from childhood to adulthood and again when you get into your later years. The four chronotypes have distinct differences.

What is morning vs evening chronotype? ›

Chronotype refers to individual differences in sleep timing and in preferences for a given time of day (Adan et al., 2012). Morning types prefer to get up and go to bed early, while evening types get up and go to bed later (Adan et al., 2012).

What is the difference between morningness and eveningness? ›

Morningness-eveningness refers to the individual differences in diurnal preferences, sleep-wake pattern for activity, and alertness in the morning and evening (Susman et al., 2007).

What is the chronotype for ADHD? ›

Adolescents with ADHD show an evening chronotype. Increasing age is associated with a tendency toward eveningness. The evening chronotype is related to behavioral problems.


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Allyn Kozey

Last Updated: 11/21/2023

Views: 5671

Rating: 4.2 / 5 (63 voted)

Reviews: 94% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Allyn Kozey

Birthday: 1993-12-21

Address: Suite 454 40343 Larson Union, Port Melia, TX 16164

Phone: +2456904400762

Job: Investor Administrator

Hobby: Sketching, Puzzles, Pet, Mountaineering, Skydiving, Dowsing, Sports

Introduction: My name is Allyn Kozey, I am a outstanding, colorful, adventurous, encouraging, zealous, tender, helpful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.